Based on Government Regulation of The Republic of Indonesia No 43 Year 2008, Article 2 on groundwater states that groundwater management is based on groundwater basin and is held based on groundwater management policy and strategy. Water management regulation is directed to achieve the balance of conservation effort and groundwater utilization. The implementation technically needs to be adjusted with the groundwater conduct including the availability and potentials of deployment covering the quality and quantity of groundwater and its environment. Groundwater is divided into shallow groundwater which is located in unconfined aquifer and deep groundwater which is located in confined aquifer. Aquifer is water-saturated rock layer which is able to store and continue groundwater in sufficient and economic quantity.
Water source in Campus UNS located in Kentingan, Surakarta is a part of groundwater source in Karanganyar – Boyolali Groundwater Reserve. The potentials of Karanganyar – Boyolali Groundwater Reserve has the quantity of free flow groundwater or shallow groundwater of Q=1,338 million m3/year and quantity of depressed groundwater or deep groundwater Q=21 million m3/year. The water source is much more than other Groundwater Reserve in the surroundings.
In micro level, groundwater source in Campus UNS is located on Notopuro Formation. The formed stratigraphy is 6 per rock layer with different resistivity value based on its vertical incision. The first layer has resistivity value of 88.75 ohm-meter with material of clay and layer thickness of 0.5 meter. The second layer is sandy clay with resistivity value of 15.16 ohm-meter and thickness of 1.5 meter. The third layer is sandy rock with resistivity value of 4.84 ohm-meter and thickness of 8 meter. This layer is an aquifer for shallow groundwater. The fourth layer is sandy clay with resistivity of 7.48 ohm-meter and thickness of 28 meter. The fifth layer is sandy rock with resistivity value of 5.74 ohm-meter and ability to continue water. Estimated potentially deep groundwater to be found is located in this layer with sandy rock as the material and the lowest Rho value. The sixth layer is clay with resistivity value of 25.49 ohm-meter (Yoga Wibowo: 2012). Based on stratigraphy of rock layer in Notopuro Formation in Figure 4.1, the shallow groundwater is at the depth of 4.00 – 10.00 meter and deep groundwater is at the depth of 38.00 – 98.00 meter.
Programs and implementation of Water Source Conservation in Universitas Sebelas Maret, Kentingan, Surakarta cover several methods as follows:
a. Regulation through the Decree of Rector of Universitas Sebelas Maret number: 827A/UN27/HK/2013 on the guidelines of Green Campus management of Universitas Sebelas Maret including the implementation of water source management.
b. Save water campaign through socialization and leaflet containing suggestion to use groundwater effectively and efficiently. This has been done since 2013. The targets of the campaign are lecturers and students.
Figure 4.1 Save Water Campaign Leaflet (left) and facilities and infrastructure for saving water (right)
c. Determining surface water infiltration through campus woods, parks, pedestrian path and parking area by using paving blocks
Figure 4.2 Infiltration area in the form of campus woods (a), park (b), pedestrian path (c), and parking area
d.Constructing groundwater infiltration wellfor surface water management by enlarging infiltration process in order to decrease the river flow through campus. In 2013, UNS constructed 32 infiltration wells. By the end of 2014, UNS would have been finished constructing 37 infiltration wells. Technically, the wells have diameter of 0.80 m and depth of 6.00 m.
Figure 4.3 Shallow groundwater infiltration well
e. Constructing campus lake functioned as infiltration area located in the east side of head office of Universitas Sebelas Maret. In addition, the river is dammed to create inundation for infiltration.
In addition, the river is dammed to create inundation for infiltration. In long term, UNS will develop dam as campus inundation to maintain the balance of water and the source in emergency, such as fire (figure 4.5)
Figure 4.4 Lake (left) and Dam(right)
Figure 4.5. Design of rainwater lake location
Piping facility is a construction with tools and equipments which results, provides, and distributes drinking water for campus residents through piping/distribution. The consumed water is groundwater or surface water with or without processing. The standard water sources in campus UNS Kentingan, Surakarta, are from (a) standard water sourced from PDAM (Regional Water Company) for 40% campus needs and (b) deep groundwater for 60% standard water needs by drilling.
Groundwater distribution from PDAM is conducted through piping directed to each unit/faculty in Universitas Sebelas Maret. Instead of centralized, the meter to record water flow is located in each unit/faculty. White/grey PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) pipe is installed underground in the roadside. There is a temporary dam in each unit/faculty before the water is distributed to every crane by pumping and gravitation.
The second standard water source is obtained by drilling in each unit/faculty. There are 16 groundwater wells with average flow of 7 liters/second in Universitas Sebelas Maret. Before being distributed to every crane, water is accommodated in a reservoir. There are two types of reservoir; (a) on the ground surface which enables water to fill in the reservoir with the help of gravitation and be distributed by pumping and (b) upper the ground surface (tower) which enables water to fill in the reservoir by pumping and be distributed by gravitation.