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The groundwater conservation program is a part of the implementation of water resources management in an attempt of planning, conducting, watching and evaluating the operation of water resource conservation, water resource utilization, and water damage control. Water resource conservation is an attempt to maintain the existence and sustainability of the water resources’ condition, nature and function in order to sustain the sufficient availability in quantity and quality to meet the needs of living beings today and tomorrow.

Regionally, the groundwater resource in Universitas Sebelas Maret Kentingan Surakarta is a part of the groundwater resource in the area of the Groundwater Basin of Karanganyar-Boyolali.  The amount of potential Groundwater Basin of Karanganyar – Boyolali is as follow: the number of the flow of moving groundwater (Phreatic Groundwater) or shallow groundwater Q = 1,338 million m3 / year and the amount of the flow of under-pressured groundwater or or deep Groundwater (Artesian) Q = 21 million m3 / year.

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@2016. greencampus UNS

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The degrading global environmental awareness has taken public concern all over the world in various sectors, including education. Higher education as the front liner of innovation and the development of science and technology should be a role model in a nurturing environment. Universitas Sebelas Maret as one of the universities that care about the environment, initiates to keep the environment clean, green, and healthy through the Green Campus program. A university should meet the required indicators and criteria to realize the Green Campus. One of them is the management and treatment of organic or inorganic, hazardous and toxic, and disposal waste. Several programs and activities in processing and managing waste encompass Recycing Program for University Waste, Toxic Waste Recycling, Organic Waste Treatment, Inorganic Waste Treatment, and Sewage Disposal.

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@2016. greencampus UNS

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Although there habe been already many bicycle shelters available in several spots in UNS, in this year, 2016, UNS builds new bicycle shelters with new design, like in the image below.

Electric-bike Usage of Security in Campus

The use of electric bicycle for the operation of security will reduce the number of motorcycle on campus, so that it will automatically reduce fossil fuel consumption. Eventually, it will impact on the reduction of air pollution on campus.

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@2016. greencampus UNS

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The constructing of newer buildings in UNS always considers the balance between land availability and green space. The new high-rise building (>4 floor) is built in an attempt to achieve this balance, which eventually increases the precentage of the green space,  land use efficiency and also the utilization of integrated building. It is for example, the 8-floor central library building of UNS. This building functions not only as the center library of UNS, but also it functions as the exhibition room, integrated commercial facility and multipurpose room. All of these function rooms can be used by all study programs in UNS and it can even be functioned as commercial lease for stake holders.

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@2016. greencampus UNS

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Criteria about: Energy efficient appliances usage are replacing conventional appliances, Smart building implementation, Renewable energy produce inside campus, Electricity usage per year (in kilo watt hour), Ratio of renewable energy produce/production towards total energy usage per year, Elements of green building implementation as reflected in all construction and renovation policy, Greenhouse gas emission reductions program.

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@2016. greencampus UNS

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Universitas Sebelas Maret (UNS) applies the principles of sustainable development through the implementation of three core responsibilities of higher education, including teaching, research, and community services, which are based on environment and sustainability. This aims at achieving the green attitude and green environment in UNS.  In response to a growing need to disseminate green attitude, UNS sought students engagement and participation in green activities within universities. One way to cultivate this attitude is by socializing green campus toward new student class of 2016.

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@2016. greencampus UNS

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1. Figure: The centre of Biodiesel development 2. Figure: The activity of Biodiesel Development at Biofuel Laboratory Engineering Faculty   3. Figure: The Processof desiccation of biofuel row material 4. Figure: The development of fuel replacing petroleum energy

5 Figure: Center of National Electric Car Laboratory (Molina) Engineering Faculty

6. Figure: Activity of National Electric Car Invention

7. Figure: Renewable Energy Laboratory

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Based on Government Regulation of The Republic of Indonesia No 43 Year 2008, Article 2 on groundwater states that groundwater management is based on groundwater basin and is held based on groundwater management policy and strategy. Water management regulation is directed to achieve the balance of conservation effort and groundwater utilization. The implementation technically needs to be adjusted with the groundwater conduct including the availability and potentials of deployment covering the quality and quantity of groundwater and its environment. Groundwater is divided into shallow groundwater which is located in unconfined aquifer and deep groundwater which is located in confined aquifer. Aquifer is water-saturated rock layer which is able to store and continue groundwater in sufficient and economic quantity.

Water source in Campus UNS located in Kentingan, Surakarta is a part of groundwater source in Karanganyar – Boyolali Groundwater Reserve. The potentials of Karanganyar – Boyolali Groundwater Reserve has the quantity of free flow groundwater or shallow groundwater of Q=1,338 million m3/year and quantity of depressed groundwater or deep groundwater Q=21 million m3/year. The water source is much more than other Groundwater Reserve in the surroundings.

In micro level, groundwater source in Campus UNS is located on Notopuro Formation. The formed stratigraphy is 6 per rock layer with different resistivity value based on its vertical incision. The first layer has resistivity value of 88.75 ohm-meter with material of clay and layer thickness of 0.5 meter. The second layer is sandy clay with resistivity value of 15.16 ohm-meter and thickness of 1.5 meter. The third layer is sandy rock with resistivity value of 4.84 ohm-meter and thickness of 8 meter. This layer is an aquifer for shallow groundwater. The fourth layer is sandy clay with resistivity of 7.48 ohm-meter and thickness of 28 meter. The fifth layer is sandy rock with resistivity value of 5.74 ohm-meter and ability to continue water. Estimated potentially deep groundwater to be found is located in this layer with sandy rock as the material and the lowest Rho value. The sixth layer is clay with resistivity value of 25.49 ohm-meter (Yoga Wibowo: 2012). Based on stratigraphy of rock layer in Notopuro Formation in Figure 4.1, the shallow groundwater is at the depth of 4.00 – 10.00 meter and deep groundwater is at the depth of 38.00 – 98.00 meter.

Programs and implementation of Water Source Conservation in Universitas Sebelas Maret, Kentingan, Surakarta cover several methods as follows:

a. Regulation through the Decree of Rector of Universitas Sebelas Maret number: 827A/UN27/HK/2013 on the guidelines of Green Campus management of Universitas Sebelas Maret including the implementation of water source management.

b. Save water campaign through socialization and leaflet containing suggestion to use groundwater effectively and efficiently. This has been done since 2013. The targets of the campaign are lecturers and students.

Figure 4.1 Save Water Campaign Leaflet (left) and facilities and infrastructure for saving water (right)

c. Determining surface water infiltration through campus woods, parks, pedestrian path and parking area by using paving blocks

Figure 4.2 Infiltration area in the form of campus woods (a), park (b), pedestrian path (c), and parking area

d.Constructing groundwater infiltration wellfor surface water management by enlarging infiltration process in order to decrease the river flow through campus. In 2013, UNS constructed 32 infiltration wells. By the end of 2014, UNS would have been finished constructing 37 infiltration wells. Technically, the wells have diameter of 0.80 m and depth of 6.00 m.

Figure 4.3 Shallow groundwater infiltration well

e. Constructing campus lake functioned as infiltration area located in the east side of head office of Universitas Sebelas Maret. In addition, the river is dammed to create inundation for infiltration.

In addition, the river is dammed to create inundation for infiltration. In long term, UNS will develop dam as campus inundation to maintain the balance of water and the source in emergency, such as fire (figure 4.5)

Figure 4.4 Lake (left) and Dam(right)

Figure 4.5. Design of rainwater lake location

Piped Water

Piping facility is a construction with tools and equipments which results, provides, and distributes drinking water for campus residents through piping/distribution. The consumed water is groundwater or surface water with or without processing. The standard water sources in campus UNS Kentingan, Surakarta, are from (a) standard water sourced from PDAM (Regional Water Company) for 40% campus needs and (b) deep groundwater for 60% standard water needs by drilling.

Groundwater distribution from PDAM is conducted through piping directed to each unit/faculty in Universitas Sebelas Maret. Instead of centralized, the meter to record water flow is located in each unit/faculty. White/grey PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) pipe is installed underground in the roadside. There is a temporary dam in each unit/faculty before the water is distributed to every crane by pumping and gravitation.

The second standard water source is obtained by drilling in each unit/faculty. There are 16 groundwater wells with average flow of 7 liters/second in Universitas Sebelas Maret. Before being distributed to every crane, water is accommodated in a reservoir. There are two types of reservoir; (a) on the ground surface which enables water to fill in the reservoir with the help of gravitation and be distributed by pumping and (b) upper the ground surface (tower) which enables water to fill in the reservoir by pumping and be distributed by gravitation.

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The degradation of global environment quality has inspired the environmental awareness of the world society in various sectors including education sector. Higher education institution, as a renewal and enhancement of science and technology, should commit a good model in preserving environment. Universitas Sebelas Maret, as one of the institutions that concerns about environment is encouraged to preserve environment to be sanitary, green, and healthy through Green Campus program. To accomplish the green campus, a campus should meet one of the required indicators and criteria, one of them is the management and processing of waste of organic, inorganic, hazardous and toxic and disposal waste. The program designed for waste treatment and processing includes Recycling Program for University Waste, Toxic Waste Recycling, Organic Waste Treatment, Inorganic Waste Treatment, and Sewage Disposal.

A. Waste Water treatment

Recycling Program for University Waste is an effort to recycle domestic wastewater in UNS in order to be re-used and reduce ground water usage quantity in UNS. However, UNS has yet to own an integrated and complete recycling program to treat the significant amount of domestic wastewater. Some of the waste flows into the pond and is reused.

On the other side, UNS has made an integrated channel system for domestic wastewater and rainwater in the region of faculty, institution, head office, and working unit to be streamed to a storage pond in UNS and to the rivulet of Bengawan Solo subsequently.

B. Organic and In Organic Waste Treatment

One of the biggest waste produced by UNS’ environment activity is organic waste such as leaves and papers. In 2014, UNS has executed organic and inorganic waste sorting by increasing the number of segregated trash bins in each faculty/working unit and along the road of UNS.

Data of waste sorting is increasing this year. In 2013, there was only 22.7% (5 faculties doing waste sorting. In 2014, segregated trash bins have been placed in all faculties/working unit and along the road of UNS.

Recently, UNS is conducting an independent organic waste treatment (fully composted organic waste) by utilizing composting tools provided in the faculty of Agriculture and Engineering. Nevertheless, this organic waste is also used and managed by third party. This year, attempts to reduce the paper usage are made, e.g., UNS internal meeting invitation by using email and thesis consultation by using scrap papers or soft file. Inorganic waste treatment is executed by collecting the waste into a container to avoid scattering. Inorganic waste treatment is handed to the third party  
Organic Waste Processing at the Faculty of Agriculture
Organic Waste Treatment in Faculty of Engineering
There is a Unit of Compost Processing in Faculty of Engineering. The unit has been performing compost processing from leaves garbage since December 2013 with the help of WIKA. In the beginning, the unit is managed by the faculty. Currently, it is managed by KOPMA (student cooperation). There is a leaves chopper tool in the unit. However, the tool has not been optimally utilized due to its small capacity and low ability in chopping leaves. The crushed leaves is mixed with fermentor in a closed drum for 2-3 weeks. Finished compost is measured and packed for 1 kg and labeled with Pupuk Kompos Semar. The compost is sold to the people nearby. The unit does not operated daily. It usually operates 3 times a week and produces 70 packs of compost.
C. Toxic Waste Recycling
Faculties and working units in UNS that are dominantly producing hazardous and toxic waste are Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training and central laboratory of Mathematics and Natural Science, UNS. In education, laboratory plays an eminent role in improving education quality and quantity for students and lecturers who conduct research in university scope. Thus, laboratory activity level is high. The result of the practicum and preliminary analysis shows that the practicum analyzed samples containing hazardous material, such as Fe, Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd, Hg, etc. Some of toxic waste treatments in UNS are conducted by collaborating with third party; some are conducted independently by using IPAL (Wastewater Processing Installation). In 2009, UNS built a processing unit of waste which is mostly produced by central laboratory of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science. IPAL is planned to accommodate the waste from Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science and Faculty of Medicine in an integrated way.
Table 1 is a result of chemical laboratorium wastewater test in 2014. It shows that the wastewater is considered to be fine and not to exceed the environment standard
Table 1
D. Integrated IPAL
UNS has already made plan for integrated IPAL processing by utilizing one IPAL concept in the location as shown in Figure 8. The location of integrated one IPAL is located in the lowest area to ease the flow of domestic liquid waste from all faculties and working units. One IPAL plan employs few open and empty lands that can reduce the cost of IPAL establishment.
Design of domestic Liquid Waste Flow and Integrated IPAL in UNS Environment
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Green Transportation Concept

is a applied so that means of transportation will be more environmentally friendly. Green Transportation is an approach to realize the transportation producing less or no green house gas. Green house gas is one of the global warming causes as environmental experts say. Transportation contributes 15-20% for green house gas. It will continuously increase if it is uncontrolled.

Transportation policy to limit the number of motorized vehicles in campus and policy to reduce parking area in campus is expected to encourage all academicians to use bus, bicycle or on foot for campus activity. Campus bus and bicycle may drive a healthier environment. Policy to provide a safe and comfortable pedestrian path will encourage academician to walk and will give impact on private motorized vehicle reduction. Campus bus, bicycle, and walk can reduce carbon emission in campus environment.

A. Policy of Transportation Design for Controlling the Use of Motor Vehicle

UNS is built on a hilly topography with average temperature of 30°C and humidity of 75%. This condition makes walking and riding bicycle not an option when private motor vehicle is still allowed to be used in campus. Based on the survey in August 2014, the number of car and motorcycle users is decreasing compared to survey result in May 2013. In campus UNS, motorcycle users are decreasing for 10.98%, meanwhile car users are decreasing for 3.81%. In contrary, the user of bicycle on campus in 2014 is increasing for 0.84% compared to that in 2013. Thanks to green campus programs which have been implemented intensively since 2013, motorized vehicle users are decreasing and bicycle users are increasing.

Special attention is needed for UNS in realizing green transportation, particularly in reducing motorized vehicles on campus. The reduction of motorized vehicles is not only a prohibition, but also followed by providing a proper, comfortable and safe means of transportation for all UNS academicians.

Campus UNS has been attempting in limiting motorized vehicles on campus by bus procurement, bicycle usage in some particular departments (Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering), parking area limitation with ICT (Information and Communication Technology) parking Management starting in Faculty of Engineering, electric bicycle usage for security guard in UNS and pedestrian facility improvement.

Parking area imitation with ICT Parking Management has been conducted in Faculty of Engineering based on circular letter of the dean which obliged all academicians in the faculty to register their vehicle for academic activity and received smart card for using the parking area. Thus, academicians who have not been registered and do not have the smart card, they cannot use the parking facility. This procedure will reduce the parking area usage and motorized vehicle subsequently as well because only registered vehicles are allowed to enter the faculty and use the parking facility.

Besides, UNS operates 10 special electrical motorized vehicles for security guard. In maintaining the security of the hilly UNS area, the guard patrol by using the electrical motorcycle to substitute the non-electrical one and to reduce fuels and CO emission on campus.

UNS’s plans to limit the motor are pointed to:

  1. Providing public facility of pedestrian, bicycle and campus bus to ease for users to access the campus environment;
  2. Street infrastructure design by considering transportation with environmentally friendly concept, such as campus bus mobility convenience, safety and comforts for bicycle riders and pedestrian.
  3. Policy of campus bus operation.
  4. Policy of parking area usage with ICT system
  5. Policy of electrical bicycle for security guard for their duties on campus

Academician Activity in Pedestrian Path of Campus UNS

Electrical Bicycle Usage by Security Guard

ICT (Information and Communication Technology) Implementation in Parking Management of Faculty of Engineering

Bicycle usage by UNS’ academician

B.Campus Bus Operation

Campus bus has been operating by UNS since 2011 and becoming a recommended green transportation in campus because its capacity in accommodating a larger number of people than motorcycle or car has. Thus, in accumulation, it can help reduce traffic jam, fuel usage, emissions and noise effect. The UNS academician may use the bus facility for free.

As a public transportation, campus bus is able to streamline campus land usage due to the reduction area for parking and motor and private car lane. This diversion affects on the maintaining the open green space of 30% of the total campus area as has been required to be a green campus.

Two campus buses operate in different route, namely west and east route. West route starts from the campus front gate, the Rectorate, KPRI, UPT P2B, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Economy, Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training of Natural Science Department, Medical Center, Central Library, and Kopma UNS and back to the front gate. East route starts from the front gate, the Recorate, Faculty of Agriculture, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Laboratory, Puskom, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, the back gate, Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Puskom, Laboratory, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Faculty of Agriculture and back to the front gate. The route separation is aimed to ease the users’ accessibility and mobility to reach the faculty or working unit in Campus UNS. (See appendix of Campus Bus Route Map)

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